Review on Article “Does Your Language Shape How You Think?”

Deutscher, Guy. 2010. “Does Your Language Shape How You Think?”. New York Times. 1-6.

An interesting piece of writing titled “Does Your Language Shape How You Think?” by Guy Deutscher, a researcher as well as a writer expert in language and linguistic, offers a surprising yet logic idea on how actually language ‘obliges’ the speaker to think in certain way rather than ‘restricts’ to think at all. Having the experience in language, linguistic, and culture research, Deutscher’s analysis in the article are based on his interpretation of previous researches regarding the issue. Through his writing, he ‘attacks’ the argument of Benjamin Lee Whorf who believes that “[…] our mother tongue constrains our minds and prevents us from being able to think certain thoughts.” (Deutscher 2010:1) by presenting the counter arguments regarding the issue on language. However, there are some missing points on his argument due to the previous researches he uses to support his opinion. Therefore, Deutscher’s arguments and evidences provided will be evaluated through this review.

Deutscher presents his idea by stating that Benjamin Lee Whorf made many ‘mistakes’ due to his argument that language prohibits the speaker of the language to acquire knowledge and certain habits. Deutscher disagreement toward Whorf’s idea appears to be very obvious in a way he states his opinion through a strong word: mistake.  In order to support his disagreement, Deutscher provides some previous research as evidences. Deutscher’s way in proving and supporting his idea is indeed convincing enough for the reader at least makes the reader think and gives a light bulb of the matter being discussed. However, what is lack from his evidences are the clear and reliable sources. For example, he mentions the research done in the year of 1990s by psychologists that compare the speakers of German and Spanish. Though he mentions the year of the research, he does not mention specifically who did the research. There are thousands of psychologists at that time, and which one was Deutscher intends to refer? The results of the research are yet very well said. Nevertheless, they becomes doubted since Deutscher does not mention who did the research. Are they reliable researcher? Is the research nationally or widely acknowledged? In addition, Deutscher does not, again, mention the exact time of previous research he provides on page 5, “[…] studies have shown that children in such societies start using geographic direction as early as age 2 …” (Deutscher 2010:5). Which studies? This statement makes me, as a reader, wonder whether the studies are reliable and has conducted well or it is just some random studies Deutscher chooses just to give an impression that he has many back ups evidences. Had Deutscher put clear sources in his article, his argument would be well said even more.

Furthermore, the unclear sources in the article leads to the question are the results of the researches still valid at this moment? In page 5 of his article, Deutscher provides evidence on how speakers of Guugu Yimithirr, a remote Australian aboriginal tongue, can memorize ‘the same reality’ differently from other natives through psychological experiments as an example how different language can actually set one’s mind and perspectives. Despite of the brief yet interesting explanation of the evidence, it is still vague which experiments were he means? Again, there was not only one reliable psychologist at that time, even the reader does not have any idea which period of time Deutscher is referring to. Therefore, the evidence he provides seems unreliable.

Regardless his lack of reliable clear sources, Deutscher’s article is somehow put the reader in the realizing phase about language and attitude of the speaker. For example, he talks about gender matter in some language such as Germany and Russian: how the language differentiates and gives ‘gender’ to certain words. Perhaps, for a reader who learns about language, linguistic, and culture will associate what Deutscher says with the language imperialism. Thus, this article can be a pretty good reference for those who are doing research on language imperialism.

A Review on Persepolis

Labeling Determines Identity

A review on Persepolis

Having the Islamic Revolution era as the time setting, Persepolis reveals a story of how a smart brave little girl sees the chaotic world. Marjane Satrapi is clearly successful in illustrating a complicated conflict in Iran during the Islamic Revolution into a beautiful simple dense graphic novel. The language used in the graphic novel is understandable and meaningful. Thus, it is not exaggerating to say that the moral values were conveyed well through the graphic novel. One of the interesting messages implied from Satrapi’s writing is about discrimination based on age, religion, and social class which leads to stereotyping among the people in Iran.

The story began with the illustration on how veil became a must for women in Iran during the Islamic Revolution. Although Marji, the main character in the story, and most of her friends did not understand the reasons why they had to wear veil, they did wear the veil just for the sake of subject to the majority rule. That way they would not be punished or tortured. The story continued telling how daily life in Iran could be in that particular time: started from demonstration for reformation, sneaked around for having party, cigarettes, and wine, school life to patriotism shown by the martyrs. Marji’s imagination as a 10 year-old girl on her dreams to be a prophet and hero for her nation appeared to be a strong will of a girl who wanted an ‘explanation’ of what happened around her and ‘freedom’ to express her thoughts and feelings.

The moment when Marji’s parents met her teacher to talk about Marji’s dream and behavior was the time where age was matter to dream and expectation.

“Your child is disturbed. She wants to become a prophet.”

“What about it?”

“Doesn’t this worry you?”

“No! Not at all!” (8)

The conversation happened after Marji’s told her teacher that she wanted to become a Prophet. Based on what the teacher said and thought, it seemed that it was restricted for such a young girl to have a dream to be a Prophet. Marji’s dream was considered an appropriate dream as well as false fantasy which should never be pursued. Nevertheless, Marji’s desire to become a Prophet appeared not without reasons. Having the fact that she witnessed different treatments for different people from different social class; Marji had the idea in mind to become the one who can be just for all the people. She thought that Prophet was good enough to be a peace maker. What could be wrong from the dream? There was an indication that age could be one of the aspects influenced discrimination. A stereotype on children can dream high and be realistic at the same time occurred in this case. The story was closely related to the current situation at that time when there was a limitation for children. They could not dream high, have fantasy or imagination; all they had to face and think were the war, chaos and death. Marji represented the idea of discrimination toward children by limiting their dream and hope.

Discrimination and stereotype keep appeared in the story. Statements about certain class deserved certain treatment were mentioned couple times in the story. “That is really the problem of out country: only a prince can allow himself to have a conscience “ (23). It is clearly stated that only prince who had power who can do every single thing as he liked to fulfill his desire and amusement. Despite the prince was the most powerful man in the society, equality did not happen in this case. It was implied that human being and human rights were determined by what title did a person have. Moreover, Marji’s thought on there should be no differences in treating human being in her country was stated as she thought that “the difference between social classes” (33) was the cause for the revolution and she should be ashamed for that. The issue about stereotyping and putting labels on human were brought up through the story. The difference of social classes appeared as well in the way women and men dressing in daily life. By labeling the people or certain community, the ideology of that particular community was formed. For example, Marji and her mother considered themselves as ‘modern’ women by “letting a few strands of hair show” (75). Such a way of dressing was the expression of their rejection toward the rule. On the other hand, the modern women were considered by the ‘fundamentalist’ women, who wear long veil and skirt, as the rebel which needed to be taught and educated.

Another satire about social class discrimination was mentioned in the conversation between Marji and her father. It happened after Marji’s family found out that their maid was having affair with their son’s neighbor. They thought it was inappropriate and told Marji not to help the maid and discuss the matter any further.

“You must understand that their love was impossible”

“Why is that?”

“Because in this country you must stay within your own social class.” (37)

It was very clear how discrimination was one of the main issues being brought up in the story. In such a situation as war at that time, the ‘togetherness’ were not there. Certain groups felt comfortable when they were among or within the same group. The exclusion of certain social class very contradicted with the basic human right that is to commune or interact with people in general. The image of Iran as a country or nation with a high discrimination rate appeared along the story. It is undeniable that during the war or revolution so many things could appear and reveal and those things could be the identity or part of the nation’s history.

The confirmation about staying within the community was emphasized in the last part of the story when Marji finally left Iran to study in Austria to avoid being a victim of the revolution. The father said that Marji must not “ever forget who you are” (148) clarify that the ‘label’ of herself and her identity could not be changed even she was away from home. Marji’s childhood would be her memory which formed her identity and ideology. Discrimination and labeling most of the time are considered inappropriate since every human being deserved to get equal treatment. However, for some case like Marji’s, discrimination and labeling construct one’s identity in the society.

Review on The Fall of The House of Usher

The Fall of The House: The Death of The Soul

a review on The Fall of The House of Usher

A mystery stays a mystery. The Fall of The House of Usher tells a story about the inhabitants and all the mysteries that the house has. Well written by an American poet, author and literary critic, Edgar Allan Poe, House of Usher gives Goosebumps for the reader, for the Gothic style, mysterious sense in describing important elements of the story, and breath taking event in the story described by the writer. Through complicated yet sophisticated language, Poe was succeeding in rising reader’s curiosity on what actually happened in The House? Did the fall of the house symbolize something? Symbolism often appears throughout the story. As a matter of fact the house is one of the important symbols in the story that represents situation, feeling, thought, and behavior of the characters in The House.

The description of the house by the narrator, who is nameless, began the story. The House was described as “the melancholy House of Usher” (1) by the narrator. The use of word ‘melancholy’ has already given the idea that it is not about a happy cheering story in which the characters throw jokes and laugh out loud. In addition, the narrator compared The House as “mansion of gloom” (1) which gave the idea of the situation might be inside and surrounding The House. The narrator used many metaphors in describing The House to give the sense that The House is one of the key points in the story; The House is the character as well. Moreover, every elements of The House was described using metaphor as if they were alive and witnessing every dreadful event in The House. Through the first paragraph of the mysterious story, the image of The House starts to stick in the reader’s mind as a spooky place that has thousands of mystery.

The introduction of other character, Roderick Usher, started with the story of Usher’s letter for the narrator that indicated there was something unusual happened with the Ushers in The House. The intimacy between the narrator and his friend, Roderick Usher, shown in the story by the description of how they spent time together in The House although there were some strange events the narrator felt. Roderick plays important role in the story line and has significant power over the narrator. It is shown when the narrator kept wondering about Usher’s condition as well as Lady Madeline’s existence; he just kept the questions for himself. It is quite vague what happened with Lady Madeline and her disease. Poe, though, successfully describes the vagueness in his gothic style and makes the vagueness becomes the hardly answered chain of mystery.

One interesting thing from the story is the verses entitled “The Haunted Palace” read by the narrator. The verses seems really alike with the situation of The House of Usher which can be seen from description in the verses about the Palace:

                        IV

And all with pearl and ruby glowing

                Was the fair palace door,

Through which came flowing, flowing, flowing,

                And sparkling evermore,

A troop of Echoes whose sweet duty

                Was but to sing,

In voices of surpassing beauty,

                The wit and wisdom of their king.

                                V

But evil things, in robes of sorrow,

                Assailed the monarch’s high estate;

(Ah, let us mourn, for never morrow

                Shall dawn upon him, desolate!)

And, round about his home, the glory

                That blushed and bloomed

Is but a dim-remembered story

                Of the old time entombed. (6)

The shifting point from a happy and blessed situation of the palace seems represent the old day of The House of Usher. The question then aroused, why would the narrator chose to read this verses? Would it be possible that The House of Usher used to be like the glowing Palace? As the time went by, the Palace turned into something evil which contradict with the way it used to be, and so did The House. The existence of one generation to another in Usher’s family line never stayed for a long period of time. The House then symbolizes the life of the Ushers from time to time. The older the generation would be, the more sorrow The House looked like. Symbolizing situation through a dead thing is one of the characteristic of Poe’s story, indeed. Furthermore, it seems that the appearance of the verses of “The Haunted Palace” represents as well as describes the current situation of The House and somehow it represents both the narrator and Roderick Usher feeling and thought toward The House. This idea also emphasized when the narrator said, “I well remember that suggestions arising from this ballad, led us into a train of thought wherein there became manifest an opinion of Usher’s which I mention not so much on account of its novelty […]” (6).

Furthermore, The House is not only experiencing the changes of Usher’s generation but also having some kind of power that seems manipulating those who stay inside The House. The narrator spent days inside The House with the master, Usher, without having known what exactly the purpose of being there. “Yet I should fail in any attempt t convey an idea of the exact character of the studies, or of the occupations, in which he involved me, or led me the way” (4). The narrator knew something was going on and Roderick Usher was up to something. However, there was nothing he did but stayed. Something strong kept him there, something from The House itself. Seemed like The House has soul that kept the narrator from gone away; instead kept helping and doing what Roderick Usher asked him to do. Would it be possible that the soul of The House was the soul of the Ushers as its masters for time to time? The House was not merely a place to stay; it was, indeed, a place to keep everything even the darkest secret.

The story ended when The House ‘falls’ and just left fragments of the “House of Usher”. The falling of the house was chosen as the end of the story symbolizes something. It is the end of the Ushers as there will be no place like The House that can be a place to stay, keep darkest secret, offer warmth, be friend with, live the life and surrender the soul. The House falls along with the existence of the Ushers and their darkest mysterious secret that will always stay as a mystery.

Prejudice and Judgment

What comes to your mind when you hear the word “Africa”? What about when you hear the word “America”? Most likely, you will associate Africa with things that are ‘less than’: less fortunate, less rich, less educated, less healthy, less clean. While America will be most likely associated with things that are ‘more than’ or even ‘the most’: the most developed, the most beautiful, more educated, more wealthy, etc. It is inevitable for human being to labeling things or people. Sometimes, labeling things will lead to a prejudice, and further, judgment. Prior knowledge and perception affect one’s prejudice and judgment toward one particular things.

Perjudice is something that comes from within oneself. Sometimes our mind is clouded when assess or think about something. For example, when it comes to finding a good job, our prior knowledge about one particular job will affect much our prejudice. Should we have watched the news that most politicians are doing corruption, we would think that a job as politicians will eventually lead to corruption. Furthermore, prejudice needs clarification; otherwise, judgment will take part. Sometimes, or should I say most of the time, unclarified prejudice will lead to poor judgment which is dangerous. For instance, our prejudice towards Muslims in Middle East is very negative: they are all very radical and conservative. If we do not clarify this prejudice, it will lead to a judgment that all Muslims in Middle East is radical, therefore, they are associated with terrorism. That is a very judgmental thought.

Clarifying is the important thing in neutralizing our prejudice and preventing our bad judgment. To clarify thoroughly requires a deep critical thinking. One has to be an open-minded person, willing to accept or at least see from many perspectives and – the hardest part- to suspend his judgment. Suspending judgment is not as easy as what it seems. The mind and heart should be clear from any suspicion or thought about particular matters being judged; instead, one should collect as many information as he can to be able to call a good judgment. Once suspending judgment can be well implemented, a more wise respond will be done toward the matters.

There is nothing wrong with having prejudice since sometimes it can keep us to be aware of some dangers. However, a carried on prejudice might lead to a poor judgment. Being a judgmental person in this globalization era will make one seen as a very close-minded person; that will not be good for the life of human being.

 

Foreign Students and Their Reasons to Study in Indonesia

In this globalization era, distance seems not a barrier in doing daily activity as well as pursuing dreams. People can easily communicate, travel, do business, and study anywhere anytime regardless the occurring distance. Study abroad is one of the attempts in pursuing dreams by beating such distance. Surprisingly, study abroad was initiated way back in 1190 when Emo Friesland traveled to England from northern Holland to study at Oxford University. The thirst of new adventure and knowledge brought him and other scholars to travel and study across nation in addition to the need to seek for an unforgettable experiences. According to some researches, there are more than 4,5 million students who have enrolled in university-level education outside their home country and the number- without a doubt- has increased from time to time. Countries such as the United States of America, United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, Malaysia and China are top choices preferred by the students as their host country for studying abroad. Whereas Indonesia has become the destination of tourism for a long time, Indonesia started to attract foreign students to study at its qualified universities. According to Jakarta Post, by 2014 there were around 3,000 foreign students who studied in Indonesia at university-level. Such number proves that foreign students are counting Indonesia in their consideration for studying abroad. I believe that there are at least two main reasons for foreign students to study in Indonesia: a cheap tuition fee and exploration of the culture.

There are many issues in regards to university-level education in Indonesia one of which is about the expensive tuition fee. Many students, as well as parents, consider the amount of tuition required by the university – or possibly the government – is not affordable. However, such difficulty is not experienced by the foreign students who decide to study in Indonesia. Compared to other countries in Asia, tuition fee in Indonesia is cheaper for foreign students. Moreover, the cost of living in Indonesia is considered less expensive such as for food, clothing, and entertainment. Many factors contribute to the condition, for instance, a low exchange rate of rupiah toward foreign currencies especially dollars. In other words, if a foreign student has to pay IDR 16 million to graduate from one particular university in Indonesia, it means that it only costs him US$ 1,600 which is considered very cheap compared to other countries’ tuition fee. Furthermore, the cost of living makes the calculation go no much higher when it is added to the tuition fee expenses. For example, the average expenses for daily life needs in Indonesia, in this case big city such as Jakarta, is IDR 150.000 which equals to US$ 15. The cheap tuition fee indeed attracts the foreign students to spend their money to get degrees in Indonesia. It is possible that they have to spend twice as much to graduate from a university in other country or even in their home country. As a matter of fact, one of my foreign students stated that with the same amount of money he can get a Master degree in Indonesia while back in his home country, South Korea, he can only get a Bachelor degree. I believe it is fair to say that with such amount of money, one can get a good and qualified education: beyond worthy.

Furthermore, coming to Indonesia is nothing without exploring several – or if it is possible – all exotic authentic interesting places throughout the archipelago. One of the advantages being a foreign student  is that you will get the student visa that allows you to spend the whole year in the host country. In addition, school calendar in Indonesia is quite delightful for students. There are a lot of national holidays and pretty long one during Ramadhan and Idl Fitri. Therefore, foreign students in Indoesia have more than enough days to explore and gain new experiences. They often go to places in Indonesia where the culture is easily explored such as Yogyakarta, Bandung, Padang, and Bali. Moreover, not only the dances, songs, and costumes that are interesting to see and observe, but also the way of life of people in Indonesia is hard to be ignored. Most foreign students in Indonesia are eager to observe and take a closer look at how people behave as well as do things in Indonesia. Such goal can be accomplished by mingling with Indonesian students and speak the language.

Study abroad is such a delicate decision especially when it is taken by young adults. Many considerations must be taken into the account when making the final decision. There are many reasons that motivate foreign students to come and study in Indonesia. The affordable, even cheap, tuition fee is one of the significant reasons to consider Indonesia as destination to study.  Moreover, the interesting culture of and way of life in Indonesia are always interesting to observe and experience. Thus, studying abroad in Indonesia does not only mean getting lecture about particular subject, but also learning about people and its culture.

 

Tugas 3 Penerjemahan Berbantuan Komputer

-Source-

Allegri Tak Ingin Juventus Besar Kepala di Hadapan Real Madrid

ERIS EKA JAYA

Kompas.com – 30/05/2017, 11:00 WIB

KOMPAS.com – Perjalanan di Liga Italia dan Liga Champions membuat Juventus diunggulkan untuk menang atas Real Madrid pada babak final Liga Champions di Cardiff, Wales, Sabtu (3/4/2017) mendatang.

Namun, Massimilliano Allegri sebagai pelatih tidak terlalu suka dengan predikat tersebut.

Juventus lolos ke final setelah mengalahkan AS Monaco pada babak semifinal. Sebelumnya, mereka menaklukkan FC Barcelona pada babak delapan besar.

Dengan catatan tersebut, serta materi skuad yang ada, banyak yang yakin bahwa Juventus akan menggagalkan ambisi Real Madrid menjadi klub pertama yang mempertahankan trofi Liga Champions.

Hanya, Allegri tidak mau besar kepala (sombong).

” Juventus harus tenang. Kepercayaan diri memang terlihat bagus, tetapi saya rasa tidak tepat kalau menjuluki Juventus tim favorit,” ujar Allegri.

“Kami memainkan final kedua kami selama tiga musim dan sudah terbiasa bermain di partai berat, tetapi Real Madrid juga demikian,” katanya.

Juventus lolos ke final pada musim 2014-2015, tetapi kalah dari Barcelona.

Adapun Real Madrid juara tahun lalu setelah menang atas Atletico Madrid.

“Saya tidak suka kalau pemberitaan tentang Juventus berlebihan. Real Madrid tim yang sangat kuat dan layak dihormati. Pemenang partai final akan ditentukan lewat detail-detail kecil. Saya percaya Juventus punya kans, tanpa harus mengecilkan kekuatan Real Madrid,” tuturnya. (Lariza Oky Adisty)

-Google Translate-

Allegri Not Want Great Juventus Heads in Real Madrid’s Presence

ERIS EKA JAYA

Kompas.com – 30/05/2017, 11:00 pm

Travel in the Italian League and Champions League to make Juventus unseeded to win over Real Madrid in the Champions League final in Cardiff, Wales, Saturday (3/4/2017) future.

However, Massimilliano Allegri as coach is not too fond of the predicate.

Juventus qualified for the final after beating AS Monaco in the semi-finals. Previously, they conquered FC Barcelona in the last eight.

With that record, and the existing squad material, many are convinced Juventus will thwart the ambitions of Real Madrid to be the first club to retain the Champions League trophy.

Only, Allegri does not want a big head (arrogant).

“Juventus should be calm and confidence looks good, but I think it’s not right to call Juventus a favorite team,” Allegri said.

“We played our second final for three seasons and are used to playing in tough parties, but Real Madrid too,” he said.

Juventus qualify for the finals in the 2014-2015 season, but lost to Barcelona.

Like Real Madrid champions last year after winning over Atletico Madrid.

“I do not like it when the news of Juventus is overdone, Real Madrid is a very strong and respectable team, the final racket will be determined by small details, I believe Juventus have a chance, without having to downplay Real Madrid’s strength,” he said. (Lariza Oky Adisty)

-Real Translation-

Allegri Doesn’t Want Juventus to be Arrogant facing Real Madrid

ERIS EKA JAYA

Kompas.com-30/05/2017, 11:00 WIB

KOMPAS.com – The matches in Italian League and Champions League make Juventus being predicted to win over Real Madrid in the final of Champions League in Cardiff, Wales, next Saturday (3/4/2017).

However, Massimilliano Allegri, the coach, hesitates to acknowledge the prediction.

Juventus went to the final after defeated AS Monaco in semifinal. Before that, they won in the match facing FC Barcelona in the last eight.

Having such record, in addition to the existing squad, many believe that Juventul will challenge Real Madrid’s ambition to be the first club keeping the Champions League trophy.

Nonetheless, Allegri doesn’t want to be arrogant.

“Juventus needs to be clam. Confidence seems like a good thing, but I don’t think it is necessary to call Juventus the favorite team,” said Allegri.

“This is our second time playing in the final for these three seasons, and we are used to play in tough pools, and so are Real Madrid,” he added.

Juventus went to the final in 2014-2015 seasons, but it lost to Barcelona.

As Real Madrid was the winner last year after winning over Atletico Madrid.

“I don’t like when the news about Juventus is too much. Real Madrid is a strong team and deserved to be respected. The winner in teh final will be determined by small details. I believe that Juventus has the chance, without ignoring the strenght of Real Madrid,” he said. (Lariza Oky Adisty)

 

Business Report

Technology is a very important aspect in business nowadays. For the last two decades, technology has been developed rapidly in many kind of forms. For example, the use of internet and e-mail enables people to make a good business report. People don’t have to write or type manually and printed the result in papers; instead, the report can be sent via e-mail directly to the designated person.

Business reports are a type of assignment in which it analyzes a situation (either a real situation or a case study) and apply business theories to produce a range of suggestions for improvement. A business report is prepared containing business related information that assists the management to take better decision. According to Lesikar and Petit, “A business report is an orderly, objective communication of factual information that serves some business purpose”. As Murphy and Hildebrandt said, “A business report is an impartial, objective, planned presentation of a fact to one or more persons for a specific, significant business purpose. Therefore, a business report can be defined as an organized, written statement of facts related to specific business matter. It helps the interested persons to get insight into the problem and to overcome the problem.

Business reports are typically enabled to:

  1. Examine available and potential solutions to a problem, situation, or issue.
  2. Apply business and management theory to a practical situation.
  3. Demonstrate the analytical, reasoning, and evaluation skills in identifying and weighing-up possible solutions and outcomes.
  4. Reach conclusions about a problem or issue.
  5. Provide recommendations for future actions.
  6. Show concise and clear communication skills.

In general, there are two types of business report:

  1. Ordinary or Routine Report: for examples are Report of Directors to the Annual General Meeting, Auditor’s Report to the Annual General Meeting, Sales Report, Production Report, etc.
  2. Special Report: for examples are opening of branch, introducing a new product, improving the quality or changing the shape or size of the product.

Business reports carry information on facts related to business activities. The very nature of business report differentiates it from other reports. A good business report shall consist of:

  1. Specific issue: every report, including business report, is written on specific subject. It is written to fulfill certain need.
  2. Pre-specified audience: an important characteristic of report is that it has a pre-specified audience. Usually a report is written for a limited number of audiences and the need of the audience is always kept in mind.
  3. Specific structure or layout: in preparing report, certain structure or layout or format is followed. The layout or structure of the report is almost same in every case.
  4. Written on the past events: in most of the cases, the reports are written on past events. most of the business reports carry the reasons of the incident, the ways of recovery, etc. reports are also written in past forms.
  5. Neutral in nature: in drafting reports, impartiality it strictly maintained. No biased or non-objective material is included in it. Biased report may lead to disastrous decisions.
  6. Factual information: business report is always written based on factual information. The data collected on specific events is factual, rather than factious.
  7. Joint effort: a report is an outcome of joint efforts of a group of people. No one can personally or solely prepare a report.
  8. Orderly presentation: the information of a report is presented orderly so that the audience can get his needed information from where it is located.
  9. Upward flow: the direction of a report is always upward in the organizational structure.
  10. Signature and date: it is customary to put the signature of the reporter with the date at the end of the report.

DSS Tour & Travel

We got the chance to visit one of tour & travel agencies at Jl. Margonda, Depok, which was DSS Tour & Travel. This agency was established in 2006, so it has been 11 years for this agency operating its business. Its core business is ticketing and tour service. In 2011, it opened a branch in Depok Station; however, not long after that it had to be closed due to the emergence of online ticketing platform in Indonesia, such as Traveloka, Booking.com, and many others.

DSS Tour & Travel has specific type of client which is government institutions, companies, schools or other big groups. According to one of the staff, Mrs. Dewi, before the online ticketing was popular, there had been many people came individually to use the agency’s service in booking tickets or arranging tours; moreover, considering the location of the office which is in Depok where there are many college students who might need to go by plane and need help to arrange a tour. However, after online ticketing is getting more and more popular, the sales number of the agency has been decreasing significantly to 75%. This was a shock for the owner as well as for the staff. Having such situation, the agency was forced to lay off some of the staffs. Despite the challenging situation, DSS Tour & Travel managed to survive until now. Therefore, their strategy is to have as many clients as they can from the government institution and companies. To date, the agency always arrange tours asked by the Department of Farming and many other government institutions.

DSS Tour & Travel handles ticketing service for domestic and international flights. Along with the development of technology, DSS also offers service through WhatsApp and phone for the customers to make it easier for them. The price offered in DSS is very competitive. In addition, DSS also arranges tour for individual, small group and big group along with all related services, such as bus/transportation arrangement, accommodation, meals and preparing the visa for international destination should it be needed. It started to franchise the tour & travel package for umroh in collaboration with several big tour & travel for Hajj; however, it is not the core business because DSS doesn’t have any certificate or license from the Ministry of Religious Affairs regarding the Hajj and umroh programs. In addition to ticketing service for planes, DSS also offers ticketing service for train. According to Mrs. Dewi, the plus point from DSS is that it is very flexible to the need and request of the customers, and it doesn’t accept any kind of ‘mark-up price’ asked by some people who take care the trips for their companies or institution, which might be the reason why until now DSS is still considered as a reliable tour & travel agency by its customers.

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JIS Implementing Mental Revolution through Technology

JIS implementing mental revolution through technology

http://www.jisedu.or.id

The main role of a school is to prepare its student to become a generation of tomorrow who are equipped with knowledge and social skills and prepared to face the modern working environment.  In view of the rapid technological advances, Jakarta Intercultural School (JIS) continuously attempts to ensure that its students are equipped with more than just technology know-how. Besides mastering technology, JIS envisages their students to positively impact their communities.

JIS is highly committed to teaching technology literate global citizens in line with its vision to become “good digital citizens”. This vision is attained through a technology-based learning process properly instilled from the early stages of childhood education to high school education. Through the One Student One Gadget program, JIS seeks to accommodate students’ needs for technology information to support their learning process.

Jane Ross, Technology Integration Specialist of Jakarta Intercultural School (JIS), stated that the use of communication technology at JIS has been tailor-made for students from each educational level. For example, JIS introduces the technology to elementary students through the use of tablets in small groups consisting of two or three students. The students learn to operate the device equipped with special learning applications from the school to study, record and even report what they have learned in class to their family members from their individual learning account. At the elementary level, the students are trained to operate a laptop to support their daily learning. Meanwhile, the 5thgraders are equipped with individual laptops for classroom activities.

All is done in an effort to give students at JIS global competitiveness. As President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo said, a mental revolution is needed. “We believe that our contemporary world is filled with traditional approaches, while in these changing modern times, we must build synergy with technology. Thus, we must attempt to accommodate and attune the new era and what it brings,” said Christina.

The impact of modern technology has prompted a generation defined by individualism as information can be self-attained. However, given this situation, JIS strives to encourage compassion and cooperation among students by instilling a collaborative approach rooted within the school’s culture.

The use of technology is expected not only to build students’ perseverance toward learning, but also to shape their character and support their growth to become “good digital citizens”. Christina also added that there are effects of technology on students other than being self-reliant and gadget focused. Not only does it support individual assignments, students are also able to use technology for their group assignments.

Google translate

JIS melaksanakan revolusi mental melalui teknologi

http://www.jisedu.or.id

Peran utama sekolah adalah untuk mempersiapkan siswa untuk menjadi generasi masa depan yang dilengkapi dengan pengetahuan dan keterampilan sosial dan siap menghadapi lingkungan kerja modern. Mengingat kemajuan teknologi yang cepat, Jakarta Intercultural Sekolah (JIS) terus berupaya untuk memastikan bahwa siswa dilengkapi dengan lebih dari sekedar teknologi know-how. Selain menguasai teknologi, JIS membayangkan siswa mereka untuk memberikan dampak positif komunitas mereka.

JIS sangat berkomitmen untuk teknologi mengajar warga global melek sejalan dengan visi untuk menjadi “warga digital yang baik”. Visi ini dicapai melalui proses pembelajaran berbasis teknologi benar ditanamkan dari tahap awal pendidikan anak usia pendidikan sekolah tinggi. Melalui salah satu program Student satu Gadget, JIS berusaha untuk mengakomodasi kebutuhan siswa untuk teknologi informasi untuk mendukung proses belajar mereka.

Jane Ross, Integrasi Teknologi Spesialis dari Jakarta Antar Sekolah (JIS), menyatakan bahwa penggunaan teknologi komunikasi di JIS telah dibuat khusus untuk siswa dari setiap tingkat pendidikan. Misalnya, JIS memperkenalkan teknologi untuk siswa SD melalui penggunaan tablet dalam kelompok kecil yang terdiri dari dua atau tiga siswa. Para siswa belajar untuk mengoperasikan perangkat dilengkapi dengan aplikasi pembelajaran khusus dari sekolah untuk belajar, merekam dan bahkan melaporkan apa yang telah mereka pelajari di kelas untuk anggota keluarga mereka dari akun pembelajaran individual mereka. Pada tingkat SD, siswa dilatih untuk mengoperasikan laptop untuk mendukung pembelajaran sehari-hari mereka. Sementara itu, 5thgraders dilengkapi dengan laptop individu untuk kegiatan kelas.

Semua ini dilakukan dalam upaya untuk memberikan siswa di saing global JIS. Sebagai Presiden Joko “Jokowi” Widodo mengatakan, revolusi mental yang dibutuhkan. “Kami percaya bahwa dunia kontemporer kita dipenuhi dengan pendekatan tradisional, sementara di perubahan zaman modern, kita harus membangun sinergi dengan teknologi. Dengan demikian, kita harus berusaha untuk menampung dan menyelaraskan era baru dan apa yang membawa,” kata Christina.

Dampak dari teknologi modern telah mendorong generasi didefinisikan oleh individualisme informasi dapat diri tercapai. Namun, mengingat situasi ini, JIS berusaha untuk mendorong kasih sayang dan kerja sama antar siswa dengan menanamkan pendekatan kolaboratif berakar dalam budaya sekolah.

Penggunaan teknologi ini diharapkan tidak hanya untuk membangun ketekunan siswa terhadap pembelajaran, tetapi juga untuk membentuk karakter mereka dan mendukung pertumbuhan mereka untuk menjadi ‘warga digital yang baik’. Christina juga menambahkan bahwa ada efek teknologi pada siswa selain menjadi mandiri dan gadget terfokus. Tidak hanya mendukung tugas individu, siswa juga dapat menggunakan teknologi untuk tugas kelompok mereka.

 

Real Translation

JIS menerapkan revolusi mental melalui teknologi

Peran utama sekolah adalah untuk mempesiapkan para siswa untuk menjadi para penerus masa depan yang memiliki pengetahuan dan kemampuan sosial serta mempersiapkan mereka dalam menghadapi lingkungan dunia kerja modern. Mengingat pesatnya perkembangan teknologi, Jakarta Intercultural School (JIS) terus berusaha untuk memastikan bahwa para siswanya memiliki bekal lebih dari sekedar pengetahuan menggunakan teknologi. Selain menguasai teknologi, JIS berharap bahwa di masa yang akan datang para siswanya dapat memberikan dampak positif kepada masyarakat.

JIS sangat berkomitmen dalam mengajarkan masyarakat melek teknologi yang sejalan dengan visinya untuk menjadi “masyarakat digital yang baik”. Visi ini dicapai melalui proses belajar berbasis teknologi yang tepat yang diterapkan sejak tahap awal pendidikan dini hingga pendidikan sekolah menengah atas. Melalui program One Student One Gadget (Satu Siswa Satu Gawai), JIS berusaha untuk mengakomodir kebutuhan para siswa terhadap teknologi informasi untuk mendukung proses belajar mereka.

Jane Ross, Spesialis Integrasi Teknologi di Jakarta Intercultural School (JIS), menyatakan bahwa penggunaan teknologi komunikasi di JIS telah disesuaikan untuk para siswa dari seteiap tingkat pendidikan. Contoh, JIS memperkenalkan teknologi kepada para siswa sekolah dasar melalui penggunaan tablet di kelompok-kelompok kecil beranggotakan dua atau tiga orang siswa. Para siswa belajar untuk mengoperasikan alat tersebut yang dilengkapi dengan aplikasi belajar khusus dari sekolah untuk belajar, merekam dan bahkan melaporkan apa yang telah mereka pelajari di kelas kepada anggota keluarga mereka dari akun belajar mereka masing-masing. Di tingkat sekolah dasar, para siswa dilatih untuk mengoperasikan laptop untuk mendukung pembelajaran mereka sehari-hari. Sementara itu, para siswa kelas 5 sekolah dasar difasilitasi dengan laptop per siswa untuk kegiatan-kegiatan di dalam kelas.

Semua itu dilakukan sebagai upaya untuk memberikan daya saing global kepada para siswa di JIS. Sebagaimana yang dinyatakan oleh Presiden Joko “Jokowi” Widodo bahwa perlu adanya revolusi mental. “Kami percaya bahwa dunia kontemporer kita saat ini dipenuhi oleh pendekatan-pendekatan tradisional, sementara di era perubahan modern ini kita harus membangun sinergi dengan teknologi. Oleh karena itu, kami harus berusaha untuk mengakomodir dan terbiasa dengan era baru dan apa yang ada di dalamnya,” ujar Christina.

Dampak dari teknologi modern telah mendorong lahirnya suatu generasi yang identic dengan individualisme karena informasi dapat diperoleh sendiri. Namun demikian, mengingat situasi ini, JIS berusaha keras untuk mendorong terwujudnya kasih sayang dan kerja sama diantara para siswa dengan menerapkan pendekatan kolaboratif yang dilakukan dalam budaya sekolah.

Penggunaan teknologi diharapkan tidak hanya dapat membangun ketekunan siswa dalam belajar, tetapi juga dapat membentuk karakter mereka dan mendukung pertumbuhan mereka menjadi “masyarakat digital yang baik”. Christina juga menambahkan bahwa terdapat beberapa efek teknologi terhadap para siswa selain menjadi mandiri dan berfokus pada gawai. Tidak hanya untuk mendukung tugas-tugas sekolah mereka, para siswa juga dapat menggunakan teknologi untuk tugas kelompok mereka.

Galeri Nasional Indonesia

Are you looking for an affordable yet interesting place to visit in Jakarta? You can try to visit Galeri Nasional Indonesia (GNI). It is located at Jl. Medan Merdeka Timur No. 14, Central Jakarta. It is exactly in front of Gambir station. The place can be reached easily even if you use public transportation; you can take the TransJakarta or the train and take off exactly in front of Galeri Nasional Indonesia.

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Galeri Nasional Indonesia

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There are several halls of exhibition in GNI which was divided into two categories of exhibition: permanent and temporary. You can come to permanent exhibition on Tuesday-Sunday (except during National Holidays) from 09.00 to 16.00, and the good news is that you don’t have to pay for any submission fee.

The permanent exhibition is curated by two of GNI’s curators: SUwarno Wisetrotomo and Citra Smara Dewi. There are 109 collections in permanent exhibition. The concept of this exhibition is the timeline of Indonesia’s art history. When you enter the hall, you will feel that you are walking through a time tunnel by looking at the arts placed according to their history of making. You will find the collections from many artists of Indonesia such as Raden Saleh, S. Sudjojono, Basoeki Abdoellah and Effendi, and some international collections.

In addition to the permanent exhibition, there is also temporary exhibition. This exhibition usually aims to show new collections of one fine artist with certain theme. When I visited the gallery, the temporary exhibition was showing the collections of Triyadi Guntur Wiratmo, with the theme Between the Lines. This exhibition was much more interesting. Guntur is one of the distinguished artist in Indonesia. He is in fact is the man behind all the picture or painting of Indonesian’s post stamps since the beginning!

According to the guide, Lingga, Between the Lines was chosen as the theme as well as the title of the exhibition ‘to see what is not seen’ in Guntur’s painting. The interesting part is that Guntur used 2 media in one painting: pencil  and embroidery thread. His paintings is very interesting to interpret. You can come and see this exhibition until April 23, 2017.

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Triyadi Guntur Wiratmo’s
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Tiryadi Guntur Wiratmo’s

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